Friday, October 31, 2014

The Anti-Slavery Movement

An engraving of poet Phillis Wheatley from her book, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral
CREDIT: Wheatley, Phillis, poet. Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, 1773. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress.


Next week we’ll discuss the growth of the anti-slavery movement in the 19th-century, but based on this week’s discussion of slavery spanning the 17th through 19th centuries, what do we already know about anti-slavery arguments? Where have we previously encountered anti-slavery discussions? Can you find any examples of anti-slavery figures that we did not discuss in class? (Provide links and citations where appropriate). 

This post will be available for new comments until Friday, November 7.


39 comments:

  1. Anti-slavery arguments state blacks are less intelligent than the white man. They are incapable of taking care of themselves and therefore need to be helped. Arguments go as far as saying they have better lives then if they were free, since they do not have to experience starvation or begging.

    Other figures for slavery abolitionist are John Brown, John Jay, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    http://www.biographyonline.net/humanitarian/anti-slavery-movement.html

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  2. We previously encountered anti-slavery discussions during the Revolutionary era when slaves perceived the word freedom as a universal right and not a right granted to the whites only. In the early 1770s they wrote "freedom petitions" to to New England's courts (Foner 234). A few decades later around 1800s, the Haitian Revolution, and the Gabriell's Rebellion took place. These were two significant events against the institution of slavery. The arguments on whether slavery is nessecary in a free country, and slaves are inferior to whites by nature and skin color, caused huge controversies between abolitionists and slavery defenders.
    Among other anti-slavery figures are:
    Harriet Jacobs
    Levi Coffin
    Moses Roper
    http://www.class.uh.edu/gl/abol3.htm

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  3. Anti-slavery arguments have been previously encountered during the Revolutionary Era, in which different questions regarding equality, in this case slavery, began to be taken more into consideration. What we already know about anti-slavery arguments is that they revolved around the question of whether slavery should be permitted or not in new territories. Slaves recognized freedom as a state of not being imprisoned and having the right to act without being forced to work for someone and being told what to do. Examples of anti-slavery figures are Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, John Brown, and Frederick Douglass. (There are many more).
    Link to names of anti-slavery figures: http://www.biographyonline.net/humanitarian/anti-slavery-movement.html

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  4. People were arguing about slavery, some people were for and some people were against slavery. One of the arguments was that “the negro race is inferior to the white race” (Fitzhugh, 1850). In George’s Fitzhugh document, there was the discussion that the whites are more valuable than the negroes because the negroes’ fate would be “gradual but certain extermination” (Fitzhugh, 1850). James Henry Hammond talked in his speech that the social system needs slaves as someone who will do all the menial duties, which do not require high level of intellect and a lot of skills. He said that the society must have this class that would lead to progress and civilization (Hammond, 1858). We previously encountered anti-slavery discussions when we discussed American Revolutionary Era that included social freedom and equality.
    Anti-slavery figures: Harriet Beecher Stowe, Susan Anthony, Elizabeth Candy Stanton, John Brown, John Jay, Fredrick Douglass, and Sam Sharpe.
    Reference
    Fitzhugh, George (1850). The Universal Law of Slavery. Retrieved from http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4/ch/11/documents.aspx
    Hammond, James Henry (1858). The Mudsill Theory. Retrieved from http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4/ch/11/documents.aspx
    List of American Abolitionists. Retrieved from
    http://www.biographyonline.net/humanitarian/anti-slavery-movement.html

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  5. We have discussed about the disputes over anti-slavery during the Revolutionary Era. Yet, there were concerns in relates to prejudice and discrimination among the African American slaves. During this time, the African Americans were classified as inferior to the Caucasians. Society believed Caucasians were superior and much more empowered than the African Americans. (Mainly due to color and race)

    I am not very sure if this is considered as a figure, but we didn’t discuss about the (American Anti-Slavery Society) which was an abolitionist population established through William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan from 1833 up until 1870.

    Useful links and sources could include the following.

    1.) http://www.class.uh.edu/gl/abol3.htm

    2.) http://www.biographyonline.net/humanitarian/anti-slavery-movement.html

    3.) http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/aopart3.html

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    1. http://www.biographyonline.net/humanitarian/anti-slavery-movement.html****

      (This is the 2nd U.R.L). I apologize for the technical error.

      Delete
  6. Earlier in 1790s we encountered anti-slavery movements, when slavery was limited by some Northern states' governments. We also enountered many anti-slavery movements during and after Revolutionary period. That includes the promises given out ot slaves for joining the army during the Revolutionary War and the Quakers allowing salves to participate in their religious ceremonies. Another important event that had to do with a conflict between pro and anti slavery movements earlier was Missouri debate, whether it should join as free state or not.

    As to the figures not discussed in class, important anti-slavery figures include: William Lloyd Garrison, who created New England Anti-Slavery Society in 1832 and burnt a copy of constitution (Williford); Anthony Benezet was one of the first abolitionists in France and then lead Pennsylvania Abolition Society (Plank); Sojourner Truth, who was originally named Isabella Baumfree was a slave in New York and became free around 1827 and then traveled around America selling calling cards and spreading the word that God supports abolition and freedom for slaves (Washington).

    Plank, Geoffrey. "Let This Voice Be Heard: Anthony Benezet, Father Of Atlantic Abolitionism." Slavery & Abolition 31.1 (2010): 155-157. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 Nov. 2014.

    Washington, Margaret. Sojourner Truth's America. Baltimore, MD, USA: University of Illinois Press, 2009. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 5 November 2014.

    Williford, James. "The Agitator William Lloyd Garrison And The Abolitionists." Humanities 34.1 (2013): 24. MasterFILE Complete. Web. 5 Nov. 2014.

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  7. Many of those opposed to freeing the slaves believed that slaves could be violent and dangerous if freed. Some felt that slaves had a better lives now than they would on their own and that ending slavery wouldn't be economically good for slave owners as most owned large plantations and enjoyed the free labor.

    Abolitionists argued that the harsh conditions slaves lived under were not suitable let alone better than they would have on their if set free. They also opposed the idea that slaves were happy with their life style due to the many rebellions during colonial times.

    Many anti slavery discussions came about during the revolutionary war because it was essentially being fought to gain freedom while our country had a large amount of slaves

    Benjamin Lay was a Quaker who strongly opposed slavery considering it a notorious sin.
    Harriet Tubman escaped slavery only to return 19 times in order to help get other fugitives to safety.
    William Lloyd Garrison expressed his anti slavery ideas through poetry
    (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/aopart3.html)

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  8. During the American Revolution, slaves already had the idea of freedom in their mind and were taking action to bring justice not only to themselves, but to the other slaves as well. Though the American Revolution did not entirely abolish slavery, many new ideas and concerns of slavery began to take place. Those who were against slavery, Abolitionists, argued that slaves were people as well and they should not be treated like animals. An Abolitionist named William Goodell wrote an essay stating his claim that slaves as well as their masters were not entirely "free" if the idea of slavery is still around.
    1) Goodell, William (1853) "Liberty and Slavery": http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4/ch/12/documents.aspx

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  9. Anti-Slavery ideas popped up around the Revolutionary Era. Anti-slavery petitions, drawn up by black slaves, appeared during the early 1770s (Foner 234). As well, between 1777 and 1804, every state north of Maryland were making efforts to get closer to emancipation (Foner 237).

    Anti-slavery arguments began gaining more publicity during the Revolutionary era because of the notion of freedom, and every man's universal right to it. Lemuel Haynes urged that Americans should expand their definition of freedom because, "if liberty were truly 'an innate principle' for all mankind, even an African [had] as equally good a right to his liberty in common with Englishmen." (Foner 234).

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  10. We already know that during this period of time, anti-slavery arguments were not taken seriously or accepted until later. They were first brought up around the time the Constitution was written/brought up, in which people realized that they had their own liberties that they wanted to protect—this included the slaves. Were they not men that lived in the country, were they not people? It was then, people questioned whether or not slavery was against the Constitution or not.

    Some anti-slavery figures include a number of people who are slaves themselves that have written a documents or memoirs about their lives as slaves:
    Alice Dana Adams – wrote a booked called,“The Neglected Period of Anti-Slavery in America”;
    (https://archive.org/details/neglectedperiod01adamgoog)
    Frederick Douglass – the son of a white man and black woman (like the one law in which the freedom a child varies on the status of the mother), who was loved by his father but ended up punishing Frederick as he showed favoritism to his “slave son”.
    (http://www.biography.com/people/frederick-douglass-9278324)

    Harriet Jacobs – the daughter of a freed slave who was falsely enslaved; she was treated terribly by her master and his mistress.
    (http://www.harrietjacobs.org/)

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  11. Anti-slavery movements have developed and expanded throughout the 17th to 19th centuries to the point where it had become a controversial topic. The Revolutionary Era and The Quakers both had some anti-slavery notions. Some slaves in the Revolutionary Era joined the army in the promise of freedom. The Quakers strongly opposed slavery and worked to ban the practice of it. Some important figures on anti-slavery movements include Anthony Benezet and Fredrick Douglass.
    Reference:
    Bader-Zaar, Birgitta. "Abolitionism in the Atlantic World: The Organization and Interaction of Anti-Slavery Movements in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries — EGO." EGO. N.p., 9 Dec. 2011. Web. 06 Nov. 2014.
    http://ieg-ego.eu/en/threads/transnational-movements-and-organisations/international-social-movements/birgitta-bader-zaar-abolitionism-in-the-atlantic-world-the-organization-and-interaction-of-anti-slavery-movements-in-the-eighteenth-and-nineteenth-centuries

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  12. Anti-slavery developed during and after the Revolutionary era. The main argument against slavery was that everyone should have the same rights. slavery in new states, would be it a free or a slave state ex Missouri compromise. Since the Constitution didn't have a stand about slavery, people took it in their own hands to figure it out.
    Some anti slavery figures are Dred Scott who sue for freedom from slavery.
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2932.html
    John Brown
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1550.html

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  13. We have encountered slavery during the Revolutionary time period. During this time slaves began to have ideas of becoming free, especially when they were given the opportunity to serve the war for a certain amount of time and regain their freedom that way. The American Revolution in no way abolished slavery but it did spark a start of a new movement and the demand for freedom by many slaves. Since the constitution basically had no position on slavery and refrained from mentioning it, the people of America took it upon themselves to create their own positions and opinions on slavery and whether or not to join the abolitionist movement. Other examples of Anti – Slavery figures are Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Fredrick Douglass.

    (1) Important figures during the abolitionist movement
    http://www.class.uh.edu/gl/abol3.htm

    (2) Elizabeth Cady Stanton on Fredrick Douglass's Death http://antislavery.eserver.org/legacies/frederick-douglass-elizabeth-cady-stanton

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  14. During the 17th century through the 19th century, anti-slavery arguments were focused on the disadvantages of setting slaves free, racial discrimination, superiority complex and the contradictions between the definition of American freedom, as many people saw denial to their human rights. Following the American Revolution, as told by Thomas Jefferson, “all men are created equal,” American freedom became associated with universal human rights. As the idea of freedom became widespread, many people in particular slaves saw the hypocrisy of American freedom, given that they were enslaved and forced to perform labor. It would lead to uprisings and rebellions (Nat Turner’s Rebellion), different sides taken (such as the American Revolution in which slaves escaped and joined the British army to fight for their freedom only to be wronged), the outcry of many people propelling for the rise of abolitionists and anti-abolitionists, and place a strain between the Northern and Southern states towards their different decisions about emancipation. Several famous abolitionists that called for emancipation and women’s rights were:
    Wendell Phillips was a prominent lawyer that became an abolitionist after the death of Elijah Lovejoy, and later on advocated for women’s rights.
    http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/abolitionism/abolitionists/Phillips.htm

    Samuel L. May, was a Unitarian minister, a pacifist, had acted as a general agent of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, and had sheltered slaves on the Underground Railroad.
    http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/abolitionism/abolitionists/May.htm

    Gerrit Smith was a wealthy abolitionist from New York, president of the New York Anti-Slavery Society and is the only abolitionist to have held a congressional office.
    http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/abolitionism/abolitionists/Smith.htm


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  15. We already know that the abolitionists who were against slavery argued that slaves were people too and everyone deserved the same rights. Prior to what we are discussing now, we have seen the arguments for anti-slavery during and after the Revolutionary war. The slaves starting realizing they should have the same rights that white men had and that they deserved freedom. They wrote petitions about how they would be able to function in society. Religious groups, for example the Quakers, also petitioned for slaves to be free and have equal rights as well. During this period, many abolitionists also spoke up against slavery.
    Some examples of anti-slavery figures that we have not discussed in class are as follows:
    John Quincy Adams, Charles Ball, Richard Allen, etc
    http://www.class.uh.edu/gl/abol3.htm

    http://www.biographyonline.net/humanitarian/anti-slavery-movement.html

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  16. Anti-slavery arguments tended to be mostly based on religion. Most of the anti slavery rhetoric declared slavery a sin, and a evil. The most prominent early abolitionists were the Quakers. We saw anti slavery movements during the Revolution, because at that time there was an "atmosphere of rebellion". One reasoning that was prevalent among those who opposed slavery was that it would "eventually die out". I found this primary document that shows a Quaker by the name of Anthony Benezet, proposes that if people stop buying slaves then the demand would decrease and slavery would eventually be abolished. He also uses various biblical references and moral arguments in this document. He goes one step further and proposes schooling for the people of color so that once freed they could progress in society.

    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/aopart3.html

    Anthony Benezet.
    Observations on the Inslaving, Importing and Purchasing of Negroes.
    Germantown, Pennsylvania: Christopher Sower, 1760.
    American Imprints Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division. (3-1)

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  17. Although there was no definitive stance on slavery in the Constitution of the United States, after it was written and America became its own country with its own laws it came down to the local citizens to determine the legality of slavery. During the Revolutionary war, there were many case of slaves trying to gain their freedom, or other citizens of America attempting to abolish slavery, such as Felix's petition for freedom, or James Pemberton. One thing which complicated this issue was that also during the revolutionary war, the British began offering freedom to slaves who left their colonial masters and joined their army. One thing we know about anti slavery discussions is that slaves were seen and treated as subhuman and therefore had little natural rights, even though some of them were educated under their masters.

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  18. We previously discussed the arguments for anti-slavery during the time of the Revolution. Some were arguing against the practice of slavery, as the main idea in the fight against the British was the need for equality and freedom for all. This was the first time that direct statements were made in regard to slavery and the ending of it. Even in the constitution, the writers, skipped around it because slavery was such a hot topic even then. However during the Revolution even the slaves were beginning to speak up and write petitions to their government to ask if they would consider looking over the "unhappy state and condition" (Felix 1773), of the slaves and take it under consideration. During this time there were even some arguments that the slaves should be freed and educated (Jennings 1792) and given the chance to become a part of society.
    Antislavery figures:
    Susan B. Anthony
    Harriet Beecher Stowe
    William Lloyd Garrison

    - http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4/ch/06/documents.aspx
    - http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4/ch/06/images.aspx
    - http://www.class.uh.edu/gl/abol3.htm

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  19. Katherine Urena
    What we already know about slavery is that many people started to believe on equality. Meaning that, slavery should be able to come to an end, by giving equal rights to all men. Slavery was also related to religion because many people who believed in religious ideas, talked about how all men white or black should share together because “a mysterious providence” have put together two different races, so they can live united. The problems of slavery starting to coming out during the American revolution, where white men were freed from British empire, but did not clearly include slaves as free men in the new nation.
    Important figure: Richard Allen
    From: http://www.class.uh.edu/gl/abol3.htm
    After growing up as a slave to a wealthy Pennsylvania lawyer and political office holder, Allen and his family were sold in the early 1770s to a Delaware farmer. Both Allen and his master underwent religious conversion, and his owner, convinced that slavery was sinful, let Allen and a brother to purchase their freedom. During the early 1780s, Allen worked as a wagon drive, shoemaker, and sawyer, and also preached to audiences of blacks and whites. During the mid-1780s, he became minister to a small group of free blacks in Philadelphia. Along with Absalom Jones, he founded the Free African Society of Philadelphia, the first African American mutual aid society. In 1787, after whites churchgoers relegated African American worshippers to a balcony, Richard Allen organized the country’s first independent African American church. “Mother Bethel” became one of the leading African American community institutions in Philadelphia, and it served as a catalyst for the development of black schools, mutual aid societies, and petition campaigns against the slave trade and slavery. In 1816, he established the first African American religious denomination, the African Methodist Episcopal Church. The next year, he organized an African American convention in Philadelphia, which vigorously protested against colonization.
    Additional links about Richard Allen:
    1- http://www.africana.com/tt_125.htm
    2- http://earlyamerica.com/review/spring97/allen.html

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  20. Slavery is one of those topics where we know so much, but at the same time we learn something new about it. What we know of slavery is from how it was here. We know about the lives of the slaves, we know about the culture that developed, we know these things because of writings of other people from that time. For example we know much about slaves lives from 12 Years a slave or from people like Fredrick Douglas who made an account of his time as a slave. Or even Harriet Tubman who helped slaves escape to the north through the underground railroad. We know so much because those who were slaves had written about their lives and it stood the test of time.
    http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/harriet-tubman

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  21. We talked a lot about Anti-Slavery in regards to the end of the American Revolution, and the framing of the constitution. Much of the sentiment after the war, was that slavery would just end on its own, that eventually it would just stop being a profitable means of labor. We had looked at the painting depicting Lady Liberty offering supposedly new freed slaves books which symbolized education as she stepped on a broken change.

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  22. We have previously encountered anti-slavery discussions when we learned about the Revolutionary Era, where slaves tried to gain freedom. It was a very controversial topic but many people viewed slaves as inferior to the common white man. As a result, they were disregarded during the drafting and actual writing of the Constitution, where their existence was not mentioned, not giving them their deserved freedom. Some examples of anti-slavery figures that we have not yet discussed during class are Sojourner Truth and William Lloyd Garrison.
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/aopart3.html

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  23. A lot of individuals in the colonial time period believed that the slaves were unintelligent and barbaric. The thought of freeing the slaves was seen as idiotic because fearing them only gave them power. If the slaves were freed it would mean the economy would decline and that white male power would also take a hit because freed slaves means they are now people with rights. If they gave into one thing what else would they have to give into?

    Some anti-slavery figures we have yet to discuss are Cady Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott http://www.nps.gov/wori/historyculture/elizabeth-cady-stanton-and-the-underground-railroad.htm

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  24. There were several arguments regarding slavery. Many people felt that the slaves have better lives under their power than they would ever have on their own. They were considered as not being able to survive in an environment other than the one in which they were at the time.

    We have encountered Anti-slavery arguments during the Revolutionary era. This was due to desire of freedom. Liberty is supposed to be innate and born with the person. If this is to be true, Africans had the same rights, as they are equal. The slaves realized that they deserve the same rights as those of the white men. Not only did anti-slavery arguments occur during the Revolutionary era, but before it as well.

    Examples of Anti-slavery figures that we have not discussed in class include Richard Allen, William Lloyd Garrison, and Charles Ball.

    Richard Allen, along with Absalom Jones, "founded the Free African Society of Philadelphia, the first African American mutual aid society. In 1787, after whites churchgoers relegated African American worshippers to a balcony, Richard Allen organized the country’s first independent African American church. “Mother Bethel” became one of the leading African American community institutions in Philadelphia, and it served as a catalyst for the development of black schools, mutual aid societies, and petition campaigns against the slave trade and slavery" (http://www.class.uh.edu/gl/abol3.htm).

    William Lloyd Garrison saw slavery as a "mortal sin that could not be justified by economics or politics. In 1833, he brought together people in New England to form the American Anti-Slavery Society. The group included Quakers, evangelical Christians who opposed slavery, and other abolitionists. They pushed for an immediate end to slavery and equal rights for free blacks. They refused to advocate violence to end slavery" (http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/abolitionist-movement-important-figures-in-the-fight-to-end-slavery.html).

    Charles Ball was "a slave from Maryland, who was born in about 1780. His grandfather was brought from Africa and sold as a slave. His mother was the slave of a tobacco planter. When the planter died when Ball was four years old, he family were sold separately, with his mother going to Georgia: "My mother had several children, and they were sold upon master's death to separate purchasers. She was sold, my father told me, to a Georgia trader. I, of all her children, was the only one left in Maryland" (http://spartacus-educational.com/USASball.htm).

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    1. In addition, I wanted to say that these sources were very very helpful and detailed. They also provided links for further information and explanations.

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  25. Based on this weeks discussions of anti-slavery arguments we already know that the whites believed that the blacks were incompetent and that they were ultimately better of with, and under their "care" and supervision. We have previously encountered anti-slavery discussions when we talked about the american revolution.

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  26. We previously encountered anti-slavery discussions during the Revolutionary Era. The idea of "freedom" caused many underprivileged groups to resent their position in society. Women, underpaid workers, and slaves all desired greater rights. During the early years of the war, African American could enlist in the army; however, this was eventually banned. Appeasing slave-owners was prioritized even during the revolution. One of the most influential figures was Fredrick Douglass. After escaping slavery, he went on to become a prominent member of the abolitionist movement.

    Sources: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/active_learning/explorations/revolution/revolution_slavery.cfm

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  27. The other times when we have encountered anti-slavery was when we were doing our mid-October opportunity with Felix's petition for freedom. Through this document we learned that some slaves attempted to petition for their freedom. The other thing is that there were many groups against slavery such as the Quakers or at he very least James Pemberton.

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  28. Emmanuel Maldonado: Anti-slavery arguments revolved around the notion of human vs property. The question of whether a slave had any actual rights began to circulate. The social structure set blacks to be inferior to whites. The idea of equality was heavily questioned when free labor was going to be threatened. Arguments are based on what makes you really human in the first place? And are you capable of surviving without “our white man aid”? Slaves wanted to break free from the chains of oppression and movements took place in which slaves fought for equality and fair treatment. Some examples of agents of freedom are: John Brown, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, etc. Sited in:
    http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/abolitionist-movement

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  29. Several anti-slavery arguments were encountered during the Revolutionary Era in which the most prevalent question was whether or not your skin tone makes should make a difference as to what rights you have. The anti-slavery arguments mainly focused on figuring out whether or not to abolish slavery. One of the most commonly used arguments was that the negro race is, for some apparent reason, inferior to the white race. The people were divided amongst themselves as to whether they should support and allow slavery to continue, or terminate it forever. One important anti-slavery figure that we did not discuss in class was John Brown. He was among the few that believed in order to completely abolish slavery, force needed to be used. Another anti-slavery figure was Levi Coffin who helped slaves escape to freedom. Finally, Josiah Henson, who coincidentally was also the inspiration for Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom.
    Reference: http://www.class.uh.edu/gl/abol3.htm

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  30. The basis behind the slavery arguement was whether slavery was right or wrong. Many beliefs were religious based, and simply based on other views of freedom and liberty....for both slaves and their masters. Harriet Ann Jacobs was a slave, who escaped and became an abolitionist and reformer. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2923.html

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  31. Based on this week’s discussion of slavery spanning the 17th through 19th centuries, we know that there are both arguments pro and against slavery. Anti-slavery movements include Nat Turner's rebellion which killed 60 whites, and a revolt organized by Virginia slave Gabriel back in 1800. There have been previous anti- slavery movements during the Crisis of 1739-1741 including a panic in New York City where slaves planned to burn the city and kill the white population. Another encounter was during the America Revolution, it is shown in Felix's petition to freedom which Felix claims that slaves can be productive and fit into society when freed. A painting from that era also shows freed slaves learning and being happy.However Anti-slavery movements were restrained by pro- slavery arguments in the South, where people think slaveowner care for their slaves and act as a guardian. Slaves can't be happier in any other state, they were born inferior and have low skills to be a slave. Others thought whites are slaves themselves in the industrialized North. Other abolitionists include Joshua Coffin who claims that the British lived without conflict
    after the abolition of slavery.

    Sources:
    JOHN C. CALHOUN SEES "SLAVERY IN ITS TRUE LIGHT..." (1838)
    GEORGE FITZHUGH, "THE UNIVERSAL LAW OF SLAVERY" (1850)
    JOHN C. CALHOUN ON THE ERROR OF "ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL" (1848)
    HISTORY OF SLAVE INSURRECTIONS (1860)

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    1. Another source:
      JAMES HENRY HAMMOND, "THE MUDSILL THEORY" (1858)
      Give Me Liberty Chapter 11

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  32. Delela Serrieux
    We encountered anti slavery in the revolution era, the discussion for about anti slavery was still a debate in 1790s, whether it was positive or negative. It was also said that without slavery most of their triumph would not be possible, and slavery issue would not disappear.John C. Calhoun and Jefferson believed that slavery there are more pros to slavery and that it worked to serve both races.
    Sources:
    JOHN C. CALHOUN SEES "SLAVERY IN ITS TRUE LIGHT..." (1838)
    Give Me Liberty chapter 8

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  35. During the Revolutionary Era, we learned that slaves already wanted to seek freedom from their owners. During the war many slaves tried to run away from their owners to seek hope for a new beginning. Many slave owners also feared that during the war if they left their slaves that they might revolt and kill their families. This also leads to why they did not want to give slaves weapons to fight in the war, but many slaves also fought in the war to try to in return receive their freedom.

    Some of the arguments for anti-slavery included that there were alternatives to slave trade, slaves should be treated as equal people, it was morally wrong to treat slaves the way individuals did, and individuals coming from Africa greatly suffered during the voyages, as well as them being removed greatly impacted Africa as well. The slave trade created a lot of violence, disease, death, and many other aspects as well.

    One important figure in the antislavery cause was James Birney. James Birney was a Southerner who grew up in a family who owned slaves. He practiced law and operated a cotton planation, but decided to get involved in working for an agent for the American Colonization Society. His hate for slavery started to grow and he decided to move back to Kentucky to emancipate his slaves. Birney tried to create an antislavery newspaper, even though they refused him to give him the permit to do this, so in response he bought out the paper’s printer. The town then responded by saying they would refuse to deliver the newspapers, and a mob destroyed his press. In 1840 Binary helped to find the Liberty Party, which goal was to call upon congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia, end interstate trade, and not admit new slave states in the union. In addition he ran for president and did not get enough votes for president, but he was able to knock out Henry Clay as well.

    http://abolition.e2bn.org/slavery_112.html
    http://www.class.uh.edu/gl/abol3.htm

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  36. Anti-slavery thoughts were all based upon various reasons; moral , religious and political. During the revolutionary era, anti-slavery was encountered due to the main aspiration of attaining freedom and equality as a human being for every individual both gender and race. Two women who supported the anti-slavery movement were Mary Ann Cary and Lydia Maria Child. Both these women were editors; Cary was an editor of an antislavery newspaper and was the first female to attend Howard university while wrote a novel about the romance of a white woman and Indian man. These two supported helped pave a way for both African Americans as a well as women.
    http://www.class.uh.edu/gl/abol3.htm

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